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Annual Meeting 2015

CME Program

This event is approved for up to 23 credits by the Office for Continuing Professional Development. The Office for CPD, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University is fully accredited by the Committee on Accreditation of Canadian Medical Education (CACME).

This event is an Accredited Group Learning Activity as defined by the Maintenance of Certification program of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

Through an agreement between the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the American Medical Association, physicians may convert Royal College MOC credits to AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Information on the process to convert Royal College MOC credit to AMA credit can be found at www.ama-assn.org/go/internationalcme.

Each physician should claim only credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

If you wish to participate in the CME Program you must Register for the Teratology Society Annual Meeting and inform the headquarters office of your participation. All participants are required to provide their full name, license number, and their complete contact information. Click here to access online CME Info Form. CME Program participants will also be required to sign in on the daily sign-in sheets and designate the credit type and credit quantity. Failure to do this will make the participant ineligible to receive CME credits.

Daily Breakdown of CME Credits
The following is the daily breakdown of credits available. Each attendee is responsible for claiming credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the scientific activities.

Saturday, June 27: 5.25 credits
Sunday, June 28: 3 credits
Monday, June 29: 5.25 credits
Tuesday, June 30: 6.5 credits
Wednesday, July 1: 3 credits

2015 Teratology Society CME Program
Hôtel Bonaventure, Montréal

Saturday, June 27, 2015


8:45 AM–12:00 Noon

Education Course Session 1 – Westmount


(Separate Registration Required)


Occupational and Environmental Exposures: Reproductive and Developmental Hazards in the Workplace and Home

8:45 AM–9:30 AM Overview of Occupational and Environmental Teratogenic Exposures, Prepregnancy through Childhood
  Jonathan Chevrier, McGill University

Learning Objectives: At the end of this presentation, audience members will be able to: 1) Understand the concept of endocrine disruption and its particular importance for developing children; 2) Name at least 3 chemicals for which convincing evidence of endocrine disruption exist; 3) Understand why thyroid hormone disruption is of concern particularly for the developing fetus; and 4) Describe results from recent studies investigating the potential of common chemicals to disrupt thyroid hormone as well as the implication of such results.

9:30 AM–10:30 AM Break
10:30 AM–11:15 AM Postnatal Exposures: Truths and Myths of Occupational and Environmental Hazards in Human Milk
  Ruth A. Lawrence, University of Rochester Medical Center
  Learning Objectives: To understand the inherent benefits of breastfeeding and the risks of not breastfeeding and to be able to calculate the risks, if any, of environmental toxins and industrial exposures through breastfeeding to the breastfed infant.
11:15 AM–12:00 Noon How to Evaluate Workplace, Environmental, and Home Exposures and Their Risks during Pregnancy
  Richard K. Miller, University of Rochester Medical Center
  Learning Objectives: To understand the process that a teratogen information counselor goes through to help physicians and families manage exposures to teratogens.

1:35 PM–4:50 PM

Education Course Session 2 – Westmount


(Separate Registration Required)

  Ethics and Ethical Implications
1:35 PM–2:20 PM Fundamentals of Ethics in Research
  Bernard Robaire, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: To identify the foundation of ethics as a field of knowledge; provide guidelines for proper creation and storage of data and documentation; describe the various types of research misconduct, their incidence, and ways of minimizing their occurrence; identify conflicts of interest and how to handle them; and establish transparent guidelines for authorship of manuscripts.
2:20 PM–3:05 PM Procurement of Reproductive Goods and Services for Research, Clinical, or Individual Purposes
  I. Glenn Cohen, Harvard Law School
  Learning Objective: Participants will learn about global opportunities for the procurement of sperm, egg, embryos, and surrogacy services. Participants will learn about ethical objections to such procurement. Participants will learn about potential regulatory approaches to these objections (USA & Canada). Participants will learn about ethical and legal complexities regarding possible prenatal exposures during surrogacy.
3:05 PM–3:20 PM Break
3:20 PM–4:05 PM Ethical and Social Implications of Prenatal Testing
  Vardit Ravitsky, Université de Montréal
  Learning Objective: Participants will understand the ethical and social implications of prenatal testing, as they are described in the bioethics literature. They will also understand and discuss the particular challenges raised by Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) as it is currently being introduced into clinical practice.
4:05 PM–4:50 PM Ethical Decision-Making regarding Preterm and Small-for-Gestational Age Babies
  Annie Janvier, Université de Montréal
  Learning Objectives: To understand the complex interactions between individual, clinical, and health policy decision-making for babies born preterm and small-for-gestational age.


Sunday, June 28, 2015


8:15 AM–9:00 AM

Josef Warkany Lecture – Westmount


Developmental Toxicology: Putting the Puzzle Together


William Slikker Jr., National Center For Toxicological Research, US FDA


Learning Objectives: Attendees will have a better understanding of: (1) the challenges and opportunities associated with utilizing new in vitro and in vivo models to predict developmental toxicity; (2) strategies to incorporate multiple biomarkers to assess for developmental toxicity; and (3) visualization approaches that provide for the testing of hypotheses regarding biological pathways leading to developmental toxicity.

2:40 PM–5:15 PM

Paternal Exposures Impact Progeny Outcome by Altering the Sperm Genome and Epigenome Symposium – Westmount

2:40 PM–3:15 PM Impact of Paternal Aging on Male Germ Cells and Progeny
  Bernard Robaire, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will have a better understanding of changes in semen parameters and fertility in aging men; impact of paternal age on offspring in human and animal model; chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of aging men; age impact on sperm chromatin structure and transcriptome; effect of age on ROS production / detoxification; and intrinsic aging of germ stem cells.
3:15 PM–3:50 PM Paternal Lifestyle As a Source of Germline Mutations Transmitted to Offspring
  Francesco Marchetti, Health Canada
  Learning Objectives: Attendee will have a greater understanding of the application of genetic toxicology assays to study the induction of genetic defects in male germ cells and of the use of transgenic mouse models for identifying lifestyle factors and environmental exposures that increase the risk of inherited health effects.
3:50 PM–4:05 PM Break
4:05 PM–4:40 PM The Role of the Environment and the Sperm Epigenome in Development and Disease
  Sarah Kimmins, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: The goals of this talk will be to provide current definitions and background on chromatin biology, the unique sperm epigenome and explore examples of epigenetic inheritance based on epidemiological data and animal models. Routes of intervention will be introduced including factors such as preconception dietary and lifestyle counseling of fathers.
4:40 PM–5:15 PM The Transgenerational Effects of Paternal Glucocorticoid Treatment
  Moshe Szyf, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: The attendee will gain a better understanding of how adult glucocorticoids might be linking the brain that senses behavioral exposure and the gametes resulting in changes in DNA methylation and alter phenotype across generations.

Monday, June 29, 2015

9:05 AM–12:00 Noon Wiley-Blackwell Symposium – Westmount
  Are Human Skeletal Malformations the Result of Embryonic
Arterial Dysgenesis?
9:05 AM–9:45 AM Embryonic Arterial Dysgenesis and Long Bone Deficiencies
  David R. Hootnick, SUNY Upstate Medical University
  Learning Objectives: The participant will be able to examine the nonlinear nature of human lower extremity congenital long bone deficiencies; compare and contrast those skeletal deficiencies to the patterns of neoarteriogenesis of the 5-6 week (12-20 mm) embryonic limb; appreciate the discovery of a shared deviant embryonic arterial dysgenesis in otherwise apparently disparate limb dysmorphologies;.and consider that the coincident arterial and skeletal injuries likely occur after the process of limb specification has been completed.
9:45 AM–10:40 AM Break
10:40 AM–11:20 AM Patterning Limb Development
  Lewis Wolpert, University College, London
  Learning Objectives: The attendee will have a better understanding of limb abnormalities and how the positional information plays a key role in limb development.
11:20 AM–12:00 Noon Thalidomide-Induced Teratogenesis: Lessons and Insights Into Abnormal Development
  Neil Vargesson, University of Aberdeen
  Learning Objectives: Participants will be reminded about the thalidomide disaster of 1957-1962, as well as the ongoing disaster in Brazil; reminded of the damage the drug caused as well as the many proposed mechanisms of its action and discuss common/shared mechanisms with other limb malformation syndromes.

9:00 AM–11:00 AM

Regulatory Neurodevelopmental Testing: New Guiding Principles for Harmonization of Data Collection and Analysis Workshop– Outremont



9:00 AM–9:10 AM Reexamining the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study and Risk Assessment.
  Francis Bailey, Health Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will get an understanding of how the Developmental Neurotoxicity study fits within the regulatory context and learn about how a retrospective analysis of how the study has been used, will serve to inform the regulatory process in Canada going forward.
9:10 AM–9:35 AM Break
9:35 AM–9:55 AM New Insights into Analysis of Highly Variable Data: Motor Activity As a Case Study
  Wayne Bowers, Health Canada and Carleton University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about the sources of variability in behavioural data collected in regulatory developmental neurotoxicity studies and will develop a better understanding of key behavioural measures and analysis. Attendees will also learn about normal behavioural patterns expected in developmental neurotoxicity testing as well as the types of data presentation and analytical approaches that are useful for regulatory decision-making.
9:55 AM–10:20 AM Hypothesis-Driven Testing and Analysis: Auditory Startle As a Case Study
  Kathleen Raffaele, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, US EPA

Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about how auditory startle habituation is assessed in DNT studies, and will gain an improved understanding of the biological relevance of specific measured parameters as well as the issues involved in statistical analysis of auditory startle habituation data.

10:20 AM–10:35 AM Break
10:35 AM–11:00 AM Standardization of SOPs to Evaluations: Impacts on Regulatory Decisions Using Learning and Memory As Case Studies
  Virginia C. Moser, Office of Research and Development, US EPA

Learning Objectives: This talk will describe current guidelines for developmental neurotoxicity testing of environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Issues of study conduct, reporting, and evaluation will be discussed. Case studies of learning and memory test data will be presented to illustrate issues with poor reporting, variable data, and inconsistent assessments. The attendee will learn about scientifically based evaluations of these data for regulatory purposes.

1:30 PM–5:05 PM March of Dimes Symposium – Westmount
  Perinatal Outcomes Following Assisted Reproductive Technologies
1:30 PM–2:10 PM The Occurrence of Birth Defects in Relation to Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART) Database
  Kelly D. Getz, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about the association between ART use and the risks for birth defects among offspring. They will also learn about the potential mediation of observed increases in birth defects through an increase in plural births.
2:10 PM–2:50 PM The Impact of Multiple Gestations on IVF Outcomes
  Barbara Luke, Michigan State University

Learning Objectives: Attendees will better understand the contributions of medically-assisted conception to all US births. Among in vitro fertilization births (IVF), the effect of number of embryos transferred and early fetal losses on perinatal outcomes will be discussed.

2:50 PM–3:30 PM Assisted Reproduction and Changes in the Epigenome
  Winifred Mak, Yale University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about the potential adverse health outcomes of children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). They will also learn about the fundamentals of epigenetics and whether there is evidence that perturbations in epigenome could be the underlying mechanism for the adverse health outcomes.
3:30 PM–3:45 PM


3:45 PM–4:25 PM Prospective Cohort Study of Autism, Neurodevelopment, and Behavior in Young Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART): Cause for Concern or Reassurance?
  Laxmi A. Kondapalli, Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will have an overview of the current epidemiologic literature on the association between assisted reproduction and neurodevelopment, the limitations of these studies, and a novel approach to exploring this association.
4:25 PM–5:05 PM

States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative: Promoting State-Based Surveillance of ART and Infertility

  Sheree Boulet, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will gain a better understanding of the vision, core functions, and methodology of the States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative. Attendees will also learn about ongoing and future research projects using the SMART Collaborative linked dataset.
1:30 PM–5:05 PM Reactive Oxygen Species, Oxidative Stress, and Redox Signaling in Developmental Toxicology Symposium – Mont Royal
1:30 PM–2:10 PM Overview of Oxidative Stress and Redox Signaling in Toxicology
  Barbara F. Hales, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about the concept of oxidative stress, including the physiological and pathological role of reactive species, when oxidative stress occurs and how alterations in redox signaling can cause toxicity.
2:10 PM–2:50 PM Developmental Toxicants That Alter Conceptual Redox States Produce Differential Effects on the Thiol Proteome
  Craig Harris, University of Michigan
  Learning Objectives: This presentation will focus on the use and application of new proteomic techniques to identify and better understand the specific molecular targets and pathways that are affected by chemical teratogens. Many teratogenic chemicals have been suggested to exert their deleterious effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species. This talk will help listeners learn how the systems-level analysis of the thiol proteome (ICAT analysis), in conjunction with measurements of intracellular redox status (HPLC/redox potentials) and other parameters, can help us to better understand the embryotoxic mechanisms of reactive oxygen and stress-stimulating chemicals such as ethanol, leupeptin , and L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine.
2:50 PM–3:30 PM Reactive Oxygen Species, Embryonic Cell Signaling Pathways, and Teratogenesis
  Louise M. Winn, Queen's University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about the importance of signal transduction pathways in normal embryonic development and the ways in which reactive oxygen species can interfere with these processes leading to teratogenesis.
3:30 PM–3:45 PM Break
3:45 PM–4:25 PM Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Formation and Oxidative DNA Damage and Repair in Teratogenesis
  Peter G. Wells, University of Toronto
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in the embryo and fetal brain; how ROS can oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules, and particularly DNA, leading to abnormal development; the protective role of DNA repair; and, how the balance among ROS formation and detoxification, and repair of cellular macromolecules within the embryo and fetus can determine individual risk.
4:25 PM–5:05 PM Dysregulation of the Redox Proteome in Teratogenesis: Mediation through Nrf2 Activation
  Jason M. Hansen, Brigham Young University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will gain a better understanding of how oxidative stress-sensitive targets convey a mechanism by which oxidative teratogens perturb development and how these targets can be protected through Nrf2 activation.

Tuesday, June 30, 2015



7:00 AM–8:30 AM

Sunrise Mini Course – Westmount


(Separate Registration Required)

  Life in the Genetic Fast Lane: Gene Manipulation and Genome Editing to Understand Congenital Diseases
7:00 AM–7:45 AM New Techniques in Gene Manipulation and Genome Editing in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Animal Models
  Yojiro Yamanaka, McGill University
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about powerful genome engineering techniques, such as ZFNs, TALENs, or CRISPR, that are being used to study human disease in a variety of model organisms. Discussion will include methodologies, how the techniques are used and applied, what their limitations are, and how the field in progressing.
7:45 AM–8:30 AM Genetically Modified Models to Understand Congenital Diseases: To Boldly Go Faster and Further than Anyone Has Gone Before
  Richard H. Finnell, The University of Texas, Austin
  Learning Objectives: The audience will gain an appreciation for how genome editing tools can be used to not only develop animal models to test mechanistic hypotheses, but to develop advanced screening platforms that are specific to perceived pharmaceutical hazards and environmental contaminants to identify high risk individuals. The audience should also appreciate how these tools can be used in developing treatment strategies for complex genetic disorders.

8:30 AM–9:00 AM

Robert L. Brent Lecture – Westmount


Genetic Mutations Cause Many Birth Defects: What We Learned from the FORGE Canada Project

  Jan M. Friedman, University of British Columbia
  Learning Objectives: To demonstrate the strengths and limitations of whole genome and exome sequencing as a research and clinical diagnostic tool for children with birth defects. To describe what genome-wide sequencing has taught us about the frequency and nature of genetic causes of birth defects.
9:05 AM–12:20 PM Public Affairs Symposium – Westmount
  Microbiomes: An Underappreciated Organ for Teratologists
9:05 AM–9:45 AM Measuring the Impact of Diet and Environment on Infant Metabolism and the Microbiome
  Carolyn M. Slupsky, University of California, Davis
  Learning Objectives: Participants should be able to discuss how the environment and diet (breast milk versus formula) impact early infant gut microbial composition and infant health.
9:45 AM–10:25 AM Impact of Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Other Perinatal Interventions on the Infant Gut Microbiome
  Anita L. Kozyrskyj, University of Alberta
  Learning Objectives: The attendee will have a better understanding of how to examine the evidence for the impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on gut microbiota composition of human infants.
10:25 AM–10:40 AM Break
10:40 AM–11:20 AM Maternal Stress and the Neonate Gut Microbiome: Effects on Early Life Programming and Neurodevelopment
  Eldin Jasarevic, University of Pennsylvania
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn how the maternal vaginal microbiome is involved in the transmission and colonization of the neonate gut. Next, attendees will gain insight into how maternal stress during pregnancy alters the maternal vaginal microbiome, and recognize how an altered maternal vaginal microbiome may modulate normal colonization patterns in offspring. Finally, attendees will learn how early disruption of the neonate gut microbiome may produce long-term consequence on microbiota composition, metabolic function, and neurodevelopment.
11:20 AM–12:20 PM Elsevier Distinguished Lecturer
  Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: From Neurodevelopment to Behavior
  John F. Cryan, University College Cork
  Learning Objectives: Attendees will be able to develop an understanding of how the microbiome plays a major role in postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system programming and signalling, including the immune and endocrine systems. They will be able to identify advances that have been made in linking alterations in microbiota to brain development and even behaviour.
3:55 PM–5:35 PM Genetic and Environment Interactions of Common Malformations Symposium– Westmount
3:55 PM–4:20 PM Clubfoot
Carlos A. Bacino, Texas Children’s Hospital
Learning Objectives: At the end of the talk the audience will be able to recognize the role of genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of clubfeet and discuss the role of environmental factors in clubfeet and how they relate to gene interactions.
4:20 PM–4:45 PM

Congenital Heart Defects
Seema R. Lalani, Baylor College of Medicine
Learning Objectives: At the end of the session, the learners will be able to identify important genetic and environmental determinants underlying congenital heart defects.

4:45 PM–5:10 PM        

Infantile Hydrocephalus as a Complex Interplay between Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors
Hannah Tully, Seattle Children’s Hospital
Learning Objectives: At the end of this presentation, the audience will be familiar with the main subtypes of pediatric hydrocephalus and their relative frequencies, recognize the major genetic and environmental causes of hydrocephalus, and discuss the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors.

5:10 PM–5:35 PM

Genetics and Gene-Environment Interaction from the Epidemiologic Perspective
Suzan L. Carmichael, Stanford University
Learning Objectives: At the end of the talk the audience will recognize some basic epidemiological principles important to conducting population-based studies of the contribution of genetic and environmental exposures to birth defects risks.

4:05 PM–5:25 PM

The Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule Symposium: It’s Here, Now What? – Verdun

4:05 PM–4:20 PM

Overview of the Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule
Leyla Sahin, US Food and Drug Administration
Learning Objectives: To understand the new format for pregnancy and lactation labeling of prescription medications.

4:20 PM–4:35 PM


4:35 PM–4:50 PM

Clinical Data in the Label: Evaluating Sources of and Reliability of Clinical Data
Christina D. Chambers, University of California, San Diego
Learning Objectives: To understand the expectations for the inclusion of clinical data in prescription drug labeling.

4:50 PM–5:05 PM

Considerations for Populating the Lactation Section, 8.2
Jason Sauberan, Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego
Learning Objectives: To understand the data needed to evaluate benefit /risk assessments for prescription drug use during lactation.

5:05 PM–5:25 PM

Translating the New Labels to the Patient: A Clinician’s Perspective
Megan E. B. Clowse, Duke University
Learning Objectives: To interpret and use the new format of labeling in the decisions for prescription medication use during pregnancy and lactation.


Wednesday, July 1, 2015



9:45 AM–12:15 PM

Cerebral Palsy: History, Mechanisms, and Prevention Symposium– Westmount

9:45 AM–10:15 AM

Birth Defects and Cerebral Palsy
Karin B. Nelson, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (ret.)
Learning Objectives: Participants will learn that major birth defects recognized by early childhood are the most powerful risk factor known for cerebral palsy (CP) in infants born at term or near term, in whom three-quarters of CP arises; birth defects markedly exceed birth asphyxia, infection/inflammation, or a combination of these as predictors of CP. CNS abnormalities including congenital microcephaly, and cardiac defects, are the most common birth defects in CP. Participants will know that fetal growth restriction, also an important prenatal factor influencing CP risk, is apparently related to CP chiefly through its association with birth defects.

10:15 AM–10:45 AM

The Causation and Prevention of Cerebral Palsy
Nigel Paneth, University of Michigan
Learning Objectives: To have an appreciation for the descriptive epidemiology of CP, its prevalence in different parts of the world, and temporal trends of recent decades. To learn about the major risk factors of CP. To appreciate that some major risk factors, such as preterm birth and birth asphyxia may not always present primary causes, but may be one the pathways form factors operation earlier in gestation. To be aware of new research approaches to CP. To be aware of new approaches to the prevention of CP in term and preterm infants.

10:45 AM–11:15 AM Break
11:15 AM–11:45 AM Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Palsy
Peter Rosenbaum, McMasters University
Learning Objectives: Attendees will gain a clinical 'picture' of cerebral palsy (CP), have a better understanding of perspectives on conceptual approaches to CP, and will learn about the WHO's International Classification of Functioning (ICF) framework and a series of 'F-words' that embody modern developmental thinking about CP.
11:45 AM–12:15 PM

Neuroprotection and Treatment of Cerebral Palsy
Michael V. Johnston, Kennedy Krieger Institute
Learning Objectives: Participants will learn about that the most common brain mechanisms of causation of cerebral palsy and how these mechanisms can be blocked to prevent or treat the disorder. Mild hypothermia administered within 6 hours of birth and continued for 3 days has been shown to reduce CP from asphyxia. In the laboratory, anti-inflammatory agents can also prevent CP caused by inflammation. This treatment is effective in animals when the drug is delivered by dendrimer nanoparticles after the insult has occurred.



1:45 PM–4:00 PM

Mechanisms of Postnatal Reproductive Development/Puberty, and Methods for Evaluation Workshop – Westmount

1:45 PM–2:15 PM

Improving the Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) Effects on Puberty
Tammy E. Stoker, US Environmental Protection Agency
Learning Objectives: Attendees will learn about pubertal development and the potential targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals during this maturational process. Discussion will focus on the current in vivo protocols for evaluating these perturbations and the usefulness of molecular and in vitro measures that could be used as predictors of EDC insult.

2:15 PM–3:30 PM Break
3:30 PM–4:00 PM

Clinical Perspectives on Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing
Mary M. Lee, University of Massachusetts Memorial Children’s Medical Center
Learning Objectives: This talk will review clinical aspects of assessing puberty, including a discussion of evidence for trends for an apparent earlier presentation of sexual maturation in children as well as possible causes for this shift and the noted pattern for gender differences. A possible role for endocrine disruptors in this acceleration of puberty and their influence in the mechanistic hormonal control of puberty will close out the presentation.



Sunday, April 19, 2015; at 7:35:40 PM EDT
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